bacterial gene transfer

Art & research: nishat islam and isam adnan

further reading literature: ashley patilano


Transformation: Bacterial 2 takes in foreign DNA from the environment, which came from Bacteria 1 (LibreTexts Biology).


Transduction: A virus introduces foreign DNA into Bacteria 2, which then inserts into the bacterium's existing DNA (LibreTexts Biology).


Conjugation: Bacteria 2 pulls Bacteria 1 close so it can directly transfer genetic material using a pilus (LibreTexts Biology).

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